The following sources were used throughout our research. We owe tremendous gratitude to all who have worked diligently in this field to provide rich and thorough information with which to study these composers.

Books and Reference Materials

Alexander, Ronald James, and Richard Savino. Francesca Caccini the Secular Songs from Il Libro Primo Delle Musiche, 1618. Indiana University Press, 2004.

Bachus, Nancy, and Daniel Glover. The classical piano: the influence of society, style, and musical trends on the great piano composers. Alfred Publishing, 2006. 

Beer, Anna. Sounds and Sweet airs: The Forgotten Women of Classical Music. Oneworld Publications, 2016.

Bowers, Jane and Judith Tick, editors. Women Making Music, The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1950. University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Briscoe, James R. Historical Anthology of Music by Women. Indiana University Press, 1987.

Briscoe, James. R. New Historical Anthology of Music by Women. Indiana University Press, 2004.

Berdes, Jane L. Women Musicians of Venice: Musical Foundations, 1525-1855. Clarendon Press, 1993.

de Bovet, Marie Anne. Charles Gounod: His Life and Works. S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1891.

Burkholder, J. Peter, Donald Jay Grout, and Claude V. Palisca. A History of Western Music, 8th ed. W.W. Norton and Company, 2010.

Chiti Patricia Adkins, Editor. Songs and Duets of Garcia, Malibran and Viardot. Alfred Publishing Co. Inc., 1997.

Cohen, Aaron I. International Encyclopedia of Women Composers. Bowker, 1981.

Cusick, Suzanne G. Francesca Caccini at the Medici Court: Music and the Circulation of Power. University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Drinker, Sophie. Music and Women, the Story of Women in Their Relation to Music. Zenger Publishing, 1948.

FitzLyon, April. The Price of Genius: A Life of Pauline Viardot. Appleton-Century, 1964.

Fontijn, Claire. Desperate Measures: The Life and Music of Antonia Padoani Bembo. Oxford University Press, 2006.     

Fuchs, Albert. Italian Songs of the 18th Century for Voice and Piano. Medium, International Music Company, 1954.

Glickman, Sylvia,and Martha Furman Schleifer, editors. From Convent to Concert Hall, A Guide to Women Composers. Greenwood Press, 2003.

Glickman, Sylvia, and Martha Furman Schleifer, editors. Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, volumes 1-6. G.K. Hall and Co., 1996.

Grove, Sir George, and John Alexander Fuller-Maitland. A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Volume 1. The MacMillan Company, 1904.

Haskel, Marilyn L., and Lisa Neufeld Thomas. Voices Found. Church Publishing, 2004.

Jackson, Barbara Garvey. Arias from Oratorios by Women Composers of the Eighteenth century, vol. 1. ClarNan Editions, 1987.

Jackson, Barbara Garvey. “Musical Women of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.” Women and Music: A History, edited by Karin Pendle. Indiana University Press, 2001, pp. 54-94.

Jackson, Barbara Garvey. Say Can you Deny Me. The University of Arkansas Press, 1994.

Jeppesen, Knud editor. La Flora aria & antiche italiane, Volume 2. Wilhelm Hansen, Copenhagen, 1949.

Jezic, Diane. Women Composers: The Lost Tradition Found. Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1988.

Johnson, Graham, and Richard Stokes. A French Song Companion. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Kendall-Davies, Barbara. The Life and Work of Pauline Viardot Garcia. Vol. 1. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2003.

Kendrick, Robert L. Celestial Sirens, Nuns and their Music in Early Modern Milan. Clarendon Press Oxford, 1996.

Kendrick, Robert. “Traditions and Priorities in Claudia Rusca’s Motet Book.” Female Monasticism in Early Modern Europe An Interdisciplinary View, Catholic Christendom, 1300-1700, edited by Cordula van Wyhe. Ashgate Publishing, 2008.

Kimball, Carol. Song: A Guide to Art Song Style and Literature. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Corporation, 2006.

Kite-Powell, Jeffery. Publications of the Early Music Institute: A Performer’s Guide to Renaissance Music, 2nd ed. Indiana University Press, 2007. 

LaMay, Thomasin, ed. Musical Voices of Early Modern Women: Many-Headed Melodies. Routledge Press, 2017.

Landon, HC Robbins, and John Julius Norwich. Five Centuries of Music in Venice. Shirmer, 1991.

Landshoff, Ludwig. Alte Meister des Bel Canto - Band 1. Edition Peters, 1927.

Mabelle Glenn & Bernard Taylor editors. Classic Italian Songs for School and Studio, volume 3, Oliver Ditson Co. 1968.

MacClintock, Carol. The Solo Song, 1580-1730, 1st ed. W. W. Norton, 1973.

MacClintock, Carol. The Bottegari Lutebook. The Wellesley Edition, 1965.

Malibran, Maria, Album Lyrique and Dernières Pensées, Da Capo Press, NY, 1984.

McVicker, Mary F. Women Opera Composers: Biographies from the 1500s to the 21st Century. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2016.

Murphy, Caroline T. Isabella de' Medici: The Glorious Life and Tragic End of a Renaissance Princess. Faber and Faber, 2008.

Murphy, Caroline. Murder of a Medici Princess. Oxford University Press, 2008.

Nichols, Roger, 30 Italian Songs and Arias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, Edition Peters.

Pasler, Jann, ed. Camille Saint-Saëns and His World. Princeton University Press, 2012.

Paxman, Jon. A Chronology of Western Classical Music 1600-2000. Omnibus Press, 2014.

Pendle, Karin, and EBSCO Publishing. Women & Music: a History. Indiana University Press, 1991.  

Reich, Nancy B. Introduction to Louise Reichardt: Songs. Women Composer Series. Da Capo Press, 1981.  

Sadie, Julie Ann, and Rhian Samuel, editors. The Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers. W.W. Norton and Co. 1995.

Saint-Saëns, Camille. On Music and Musicians. Edited by Roger Nichols. Oxford University Press, 2008.

Simeone, Neil. Paris - A Musical Gazetteer. Yale University Press, 2000.

Schulenberg, David. Music of the Baroque: An Anthology of Scores, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2008.

Somerset-Ward, Richard. Angels and Monsters: Male and Female Sopranos in the Story of Opera. Yale University Press, 2004.

Toft, Robert. Bel Canto: A Performer’s Guide. Oxford University Press, 2013.

Online sources

Anon. (1839) ‘Madame Mara’ The New - York Mirror: a Weekly Gazette of Literature and the Fine Arts, 2 November, p. 147.

“Bianca Maria Meda.” Hildegard Publishing Company.

Berg, Gregory. "Rosanna Scalfi Marcello: Complete Solo Cantatas." Journal of Singing, vol. 73, no. 2, 2016, p. 236+.

"Bibliography." Barbara Strozzi, La Virtuosissima Cantatrice.

Campbell, Nathaniel M., Beverly R. Lomer, and Xenia Sandstrom-McGuire. “Music.” International Society of Hildegard von Bingen Studies.

Caruso, Marie. “Maria Rosa Coccia.” Project Continua.

Cypess, Rebecca. “Francesca Caccini.” Brittanica, Accessed 20 October 2017.

Garvey Jackson, Barbara. ClarNan Editions.

Heitmann, Christin. Pauline Viardot. Systematic and bibliographic catalogue of works (VWV). University of Music and Theater Hamburg, since 2012.

“Heroide: Maria Rosa Coccia.” UWGB Commons.

Magner, Candace. "Barbara Strozzi, Composer." Cor Donato Editions.

“Marianne Martinez Biography.” Encyclopedia of World Biography,

Ruppert, Krista. “Caterina Assandra.” Female Catholic Composers.

Spiller, Melanie. “Composer Biography: Maddalena Casulana (c1540-c1590).” Melanie Spiller and Coloratura Consulting,

“Suor Bianca Maria Meda.” Cappella Artemisia.

Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press.

Waddington, Patrick, and Žekulin, Nicholas G. The Musical Works of Pauline Viardot-Garcia (1821-1910). Online edition, 2011.;jsessionid=4867618F7ED6A7A3C6F4CF2F2024890B?sequence=3

Wilk, Wanda. "An Outline History of Women Composers in Poland." University of Southern California,

Journals and Dissertations

Bruder, Harold. "Barbara Kendall-Davies: The Life and Work of Pauline Viardot García, Volume I: The Years of Fame, 1836–1863." Opera Quarterly. 21.4 (2005): 752-757.

Harris, Rachel. “The Music Salon of Pauline Viardot: Featuring Her Salon Opera Cendrillon.” Diss. Louisiana State University, 2005.

Johnson, L. (2009). Pain, Desire, and Unattainable Ecstasy in Alba Tressina’s Vulnerasti cor meum. UCLA: Center for the Study of Women. Retrieved from

Mathiesen, Penelope. "Elisabetta de Gambarini: The Vocal Option." Continuo: the Magazine of Old Music. XVI/2 (1992), pp. 2-5

Montford, Kimberlyn. “Holy Restraint: Religious Reform and Nuns' Music in Early Modern Rome.” The Sixteenth Century Journal, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Winter, 2006), pp. 1007-1026.

Rokseth, Yvonne. “Antonia Bembo, Composer to Louis XIV.” Musical Quarterly, vol. 23, 1937, p. 147.

Waddington, Patrick. “Pauline Viardot-Garcia as Berlioz’s Counselor and Physician.” The Musical Quarterly. 59.3 (1973): 382-398